APPENDIX D - INFORMATION AND QUESTIONNAIRES FOR
ASSESSING LEARNING STYLES AND PREFERENCES
Part One - Learning Preferences
A summary of these learning preferences with some implications for teaching and learning is provided below. This appendix also contains samples of three different questionnaires that can be used to help students determine their learning preference.
The visual learner needs to see, observe, record and write.
The auditory learner needs to talk and to listen.
The tactile-kinaesthetic learner needs to do, touch, be physically involved.
||Listen and respond to information.||Needs structured, hands-on activity, such as building a replica of the Houses of Parliament, or using a salting process to feel the corrosion of metals.|
Dialogue and discuss.
Needs to be involved with "doing" activities, such as acting out an event.
Hear lecture and debate.
|Needs to touch what is being considered, such as holding and examining a model, visiting a factory, or making a product.|
Talk out ideas, interests, problems, possibilities.
|Needs to immerse in the trial and error of experimentation, such as designing and making a new product.|
BARSCH LEARNING STYLE REFERENCE FORM
The series of questions on the next three pages is designed to determine your relative learning style (visual, auditory, or tactile). No style of learning is better than another. However, each style makes its own demands on the environment of the learner. What does a tutor perceive to be the learning style of his student? How can he help that student learn, given that particular style?
Place a check on the appropriate line after each statement. Then score, following the directions after the questionnaire.
|1||Can remember more about a subject through listening than reading.||____||____||____|
|2||Follow written directions better than oral directions.||____||____||____|
|3||Like to write things down or take notes for visual review.||____||____||____|
|4||Bear down extremely hard with pen or pencil when writing.||____||____||____|
|5||Require explanations of diagrams, graphs, or visual directions.||____||____||____|
|6||Enjoy working with tools.||____||____||____|
|7||Am skilful and enjoy developing and making graphs and charts.||____||____||____|
|8||Can tell if sounds match when presented with pairs of sounds.||____||____||____|
|9||Remember best by writing things down several times.||____||____||____|
|10||Can understand and follow directions using maps.||____||____||____|
|11||Do better at academic subjects by listening to lectures and tapes.||____||____||____|
|12||Play with coins and keys in pockets.||____||____||____|
|13||Learn to spell better by repeating the letters out loud than by writing the word on paper.||____||____||____|
|14||Can better understand a news article by reading about it in the paper than by listening to the radio.||____||____||____|
|15||Chew gum, smoke, or snack during studies.||____||____||____|
|16||Feel the best way to remember is to picture it in my head.||____||____||____|
|17||Learn spelling by "finger spelling" the words.||____||____||____|
|18||Would rather listen to a good lecture or speech than read about the same material in a textbook.||____||____||____|
|19||Am good at working and solving jigsaw puzzles and mazes.||____||____||____|
|20||Grip objects in my hands during learning period.||____||____||____|
|21||Prefer listening to the news on the radio rather than reading about it in a newspaper.||____||____||____|
|22||Obtain information on an interesting subject by reading relevant materials.||____||____||____|
|23||Feel very comfortable touching others, hugging, handshaking, etc.||____||____||____|
|24||Follow oral directions better than written ones.||____||____||____|
Place the point value on the line next to its corresponding item number. Next, sum the values to arrive at your preference scores under each heading.
OFTEN = 5 POINTS
|No. Pts.||No. Pts.||No. Pts.|
|2 _____||1 _____||4 _____|
|3 _____||5 _____||6 _____|
|7 _____||8 _____||9 _____|
|10 _____||11 _____||12 _____|
|14 _____||13 _____||15 _____|
|16 _____||18 _____||17 _____|
|19 _____||21 _____||20 _____|
|22 _____||24 _____||23 _____|
|VPS =||APS =||TPS =|
VPS = Visual Preference Score
HELPING STUDENTS IDENTIFY THEIR LEARNING PREFERENCE
The questionnaire can be done in a small group or individually with the instructor reading the questions and the student selecting the answer that best suits him or her.
The instructor should discuss the results with the student using the following questions:
(Instructors may need to offer suggestions like lectures, films, reading aloud, etc. for questions 3 and 4.)
Given below are a number of incomplete sentences and three ways of completing each sentence. In each case, select the way which most frequently represents your personal preference. In each case, make only ONE choice.
|1||When you keep up with current events do you:||read the newspaper thoroughly?||listen to the radio and/or watch TV news?||Quickly read the paper and/or spend a few minutes watching TV news?|
|2||When you dress, are you:||a neat dresser?||a sensible dresser?||a comfortable dresser?|
|3||When you are reading novels, do you:||like descriptive scenes; stop to imagine the scene; take little notice of pictures?||enjoy dialogue and conversation; "hear" the characters talk?||prefer action stories and are not a keen novel reader?|
|4||When you spell, do you:||try to see the word?||use the phonetic approach?||write the word down to find if it "feels" right?|
|5||When you are angry, do you:||clam up, seethe, give others the "silent" treatment?||let others know quickly and express it in an outburst?||storm off, clench your fists, grit your teeth or grasp something tightly?|
|6||When you are free and have spare time, would you rather:||watch TV, go to the cinema or theatre, read?||listen to records or the radio, go to a concert or play an instrument?||do something physical (sport, DIY)?|
|7||When you forget something, do you:||forget names but remember faces?||forget faces but remember names?||remember best what you did?|
|8||When you have to conduct business with another person, do you:||prefer face-to-face meeting or writing letters?||use the telephone?||talk it out during another activity (walking or having a meal)?|
|9||When you enjoy the arts, do you:||like paintings?||like music?||like dancing?|
|10||When you are talking, do you:||talk sparingly, but dislike listening for too long?||enjoy listening but are impatient to talk?||gesture a lot and use expressive movements?|
|11||When you are at a meeting, do you:||come prepared with notes?||enjoy discussing issues and hearing other points of view?||want to be somewhere else and spend the time doodling?|
|12||When you are with others, might they interpret your emotions from your:||facial expressions?||voice quality?||general body tone?|
|13||When you visualize, do you:||see vivid detailed pictures?||think in sounds?||have few images that involve movement?|
|14||When you are concentrating, are you:||distracted by untidiness or movement?||distracted by sounds or noises?||distracted by movement?|
|15||When you are praised, do you:||like written comments?||like oral comments?||like a physical action such as a pat on the back or a hug?|
|16||When you need to discipline a child, do you think the best approach is to:||temporarily isolate the child from the others?||reason with the child and discuss the situation?||use "acceptable" forms of corporal punishment (a smack)?|
|17||When you try to interpret someone's mood, do you:||primarily look at their facial expression?||listen to their tone of voice?||watch their body movements?|
|18||When you are inactive, do you:||look around, doodle, watch something?||talk to yourself or other people?||fidget?|
|19||When you are learning, do you:||like to see demonstrations, diagrams, slides, posters?||like verbal instructions, talks and lectures?||prefer direct involvement (activities, role-playing)?|
|20||When you go on a new, long journey, do you:||get the route from a book (AA/RAC guide)?||talk to someone to get the information?||get out maps, etc. and make a plan?|
LEARNING CHANNELS INVENTORY
Place the number 1, 2, or 3 on the line after each statement that best indicates your preference. (Please use: 3 - Often; 2 - Sometimes; 1 - Seldom)
|1||I can remember something best if I say it aloud.||_____|
|2||I prefer to follow written instructions rather than oral ones.||_____|
|3||When studying, I like to chew gum, snack and/or play with something.||_____|
|4||I remember things best when I see them written out.||_____|
|5||I prefer to learn through simulations, games, and/or role playing.||_____|
|6||I enjoy learning by having someone explain things to me.||_____|
|7||I learn best from pictures, diagrams and charts||_____|
|8||I enjoy working with my hands.||_____|
|9||I enjoy reading, and I read quickly.||_____|
|10||I prefer to listen to the news on the radio rather than read it in the newspaper.||_____|
|11||I enjoy being near others. (I enjoy hugs, handshakes and touches.)||_____|
|12||I listen to the radio, tapes and recordings.||_____|
|13||When asked to spell a word, I simply see the word in my mind's eye.||_____|
|14||When learning new material, I find myself sketching, drawing and doodling.||_____|
|15||When I read silently, I say every word to myself.||_____|
In order to get an indication of your learning, preference, please add the numbers together for the following statements.
Visual Preference Score: 2 ___, 4 ___, 7 ___, 9 ___, 13 ___ = _______
The highest score indicates that my learning preference is ____________________.
Now that I know which is my dominant learning style, I can learn better by:
This inventory was developed by Max Coderre, publisher of Teaching Today Magazine in Edmonton, Alberta, and is designed to help you better understand your own unique learning styles.
Part Two - Learning Styles
It is important to recognize that different researchers have different ways of defining learning styles and thus often use different terms to refer to the Ways people prefer to perceive and process information.
This appendix presents three different descriptions of learning styles. The first one has a specific questionnaire that will assist the instructor in matching a learner's style with one of the described styles.
The second description provides general information about four learning styles. A specific questionnaire has not been developed to match these styles.
The third description relates more specifically to Aboriginal learning styles.
General questionnaires have been provided to help the instructor match learners with a learning style.
The Gregorc definitions of learning styles have not been included because instructors may have difficulty obtaining his questionnaires.
Learning Styles - Summary I
Physically Centred Learner
Mentally Centred Learner
Learning Styles Assessment Questionnaire
The following pages provide an assessment tool for you to better understand your learning styles. If you understand your learning style, it will better help you understand your teaching style.
Go through the questions, marking the answers that best reflect your learning. When you have completed your assessment, go back over the questions and answers to see if you can find a pattern or dominant learning style. Look at the answer key only after you have attempted to determine your learning style on your own.
1 . How do you usually learn best?
2. What most helps your learning? (Check as many as you want; rank in order of importance.)
3. Think of three things you have enjoyed learning: they can be anything and
don't have to be related to school. What are they and why did you enjoy them?
How did you learn them?
4. What occurs to you first when you are learning something?
5. What is the easiest part or stage of learning for you?
6. What is the most difficult part of learning for you?
7. In putting something together, I:
8. In what order do the following skills come in your learning process? (Rank 1-2-3)
9. How do you best learn mechanical or technical things?
10. When is it important to you to be able to talk about what you are doing?
11. How do you best learn ideas and theories?
12. How do you know when you have really learned something? (Check one)
P = physically centred (concrete)
Source: Adapted from Working with Female Relational Learners in Technology and Trades Training, Carol Brooks Ph.D., 1986.
Learning Styles - Summary II
Four Major Learning Styles:
ONE: Imaginative Learner
TWO: Analytic Learner
THREE: Common Sense Learner
FOUR: Dynamic Learner
Adapted from the work of David Colb.
Aboriginal Learning Styles - Summary III
Watch - Then Do: (also Think - Then Do or Listen - Then Do)
Taken from the work of Arthur J. More, University of British Columbia.
IDENTIFYING LEARNING STYLES:
A Closed-Ended Questionnaire
When a group tutor introduces a new word or idea, do you like to:
How do you like your mistakes to be corrected?
What activities do you like to do most in class?
How do you like to work?
How much does it bother you to make mistakes when you're learning?
How do you like to learn something new?
IDENTIFYING LEANING STYLES:
How can you identify the learning style of others?
General questionnaires taken from Learning Together by Barbara Fretz and Marianne Paul.